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      鋁板廠家介紹鋁合金成型中的影響因素!

      來源:http://www.mallhometrade.com  發布時間:2021-08-23 17:30:24  

      鋁合金由于具有密度低、耐腐蝕高、比強度高等特點,近來作為重要的輕質材料在汽車制造中被廣泛使用。破裂、起皺和回彈是板料沖壓成形中的三大主要質量缺陷。鋁合金和鋼板相比,總伸長率更小,在室溫下鋁合金的成形性比鋼板的差,更容易出現破裂現象。準確模擬板料成形過程中的破裂現象,對成形工藝和模具設計具有重要意義,金屬材料的斷裂主要可以分為脆性斷裂和韌性斷裂,多數鋁合金屬于韌性斷裂。韌性斷裂準則從細觀損傷力學角度出發,認為材料內部孔洞的缺陷在外力作用下不斷地形核、長大并聚合,最終引起了材料的損傷,可以較好地預測塑性差的板料成形性能。
      Aluminum alloy is widely used in automobile manufacturing as an important lightweight material because of its low density, high corrosion resistance and high specific strength. Cracking, wrinkling and springback are the three main quality defects in sheet metal stamping. The total elongation of aluminum alloy is smaller than that of steel plate. At room temperature, the formability of aluminum alloy is worse than that of steel plate, and it is more prone to fracture. Accurately simulating the fracture phenomenon in the sheet metal forming process is of great significance to the forming process and die design. The fracture of metal materials can be divided into brittle fracture and ductile fracture, and most aluminum alloys belong to ductile fracture. From the perspective of meso damage mechanics, the ductile fracture criterion considers that the defects of holes in the material continuously nucleate, grow and aggregate under the action of external force, and finally cause the damage of the material, which can better predict the formability of sheet metal with poor plasticity.
      一、影響韌性斷裂的因素很多,主要可以分為兩大類。
      1、 There are many factors affecting ductile fracture, which can be divided into two categories.
      1.一類與材料相關,如應變硬化水平、空穴體積分數和相粒子組成等;
      1. One is related to materials, such as strain hardening level, hole volume fraction and phase particle composition;
      2.二類與工藝相關,如應變速率、摩擦和成形溫度等。
      2. Class II is process related, such as strain rate, friction and forming temperature.


      二、鋁合金拉伸試樣斷口兩種類型的韌窩
      2、 Two types of dimples on the fracture surface of aluminum alloy tensile specimens
      1.一種韌窩的外形大而深,說明5052鋁合金屬于韌性斷裂;
      1. The shape of a dimple is large and deep, indicating that 5052 aluminum alloy belongs to ductile fracture;
      2.二種韌窩外形較小,在韌窩的底部和四周分布著一定量的球形顆粒,說明5052鋁合金有部分脆性斷裂。由于二種韌窩比例較少,因此5052鋁合金的主要斷裂機制屬于韌性斷裂。
      2. The shape of the two dimples is small, and a certain amount of spherical particles are distributed at the bottom and around the dimple, indicating that 5052 aluminum alloy has partial brittle fracture. Due to the small proportion of the two dimples, the main fracture mechanism of 5052 aluminum alloy belongs to ductile fracture.
      三、鋁合金球頭脹形仿真與試驗結果
      3、 Simulation and experimental results of aluminum alloy ball joint bulging
      板料在成形至斷裂的過程中出現了明顯的頸縮,宏觀斷口表現為沿著與厚度方向成45°方向斷裂,開裂部位斷口比較平整,沒有出現不規則的起伏,板料厚度在刃口附近出現了明顯的減薄。有限元仿真結果與試驗結果較吻合,板料開裂處裂紋的位置和形狀大小與試驗結果接近。
      During the process from forming to fracture, the sheet metal has obvious necking. The macro fracture is broken along the 45 ° direction with the thickness direction. The fracture of the cracked part is relatively flat without irregular fluctuation. The sheet metal thickness has obvious thinning near the edge. The finite element simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental results, and the location, shape and size of the crack at the plate crack are close to the experimental results.
      四、鋁板成型開裂結論
      4、 Aluminum sheet forming cracking conclusion
      1)對鋁合金板進行了單向拉伸試驗,使用Voce模型對試驗應力應變曲線進行了擬合。將Cockcroft-Latham韌性斷裂準則引入到單向拉伸有限元模型中,結合試驗結果,反求了5052鋁合金材料失效參數。
      1) The uniaxial tensile test of aluminum alloy plate was carried out, and the test stress-strain curve was fitted by voce model. The Cockcroft Latham ductile fracture criterion is introduced into the unidirectional tensile finite element model. Combined with the test results, the failure parameters of 5052 aluminum alloy are inversely calculated.
      2)采用擬合的Voce模型參數和韌性斷裂準則參數對5052鋁合金板料球頭脹形開裂進行了仿真預測,并進行試驗驗證,結果表明仿真預測板料開裂位置及裂口形狀與試驗結果吻合。
      2) The bulging cracking of 5052 aluminum alloy sheet metal ball joint is simulated and predicted by using the fitted voce model parameters and ductile fracture criterion parameters, and the experimental verification is carried out. The results show that the simulation prediction of sheet metal cracking position and crack shape are consistent with the experimental results.
      3)使用該方法進行鋁合金板料的成形開裂極限預測具有材料參數求解方便,計算精度高的優點,可為相關研究提供參考。
      3) Using this method to predict the forming cracking limit of aluminum alloy sheet has the advantages of convenient solution of material parameters and high calculation accuracy, which can provide reference for relevant research.

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